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Composition and drivers of energy prices and costs: case studies in selected energy-intensive industries

01 December 2016


This study provides data on the composition, evolution and drivers of energy retail prices and costs faced by industrial operators in 5 energy-intensive industry sectors over the period 2008-2015. It is based on the sampling of industry operators/companies and the submission of ad hoc questionnaires to collect relevant information.

Developments in energy prices and costs are a major concern for European governments, citizens and businesses and they affect Europe's global competitiveness.

In its Energy Union Communication setting a strategic vision for a secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy coupled with ambitious climate policy objectives, the Commission indicated that it will "ensure greater transparency in the composition of energy costs and prices by developing regular and detailed monitoring and reporting, including on impacts of energy costs and prices on competitiveness".

On 30 November 2016 in the context of the extensive package Clean Energy for All Europeans, the Commission adopted a report and a staff working document on energy prices and costs in Europe, extending and updating a first analysis produced in January 2014.

As for previous analyses DG Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs contributed to the Commission's work by carrying out ad hoc case studies. The objective was to complement information available at the macro level with bottom-up evidence about electricity and natural gas prices and costs in a number of selected sectors amongst energy-intensive industries, namely:

  • Steel.
  • Aluminium.
  • Bricks and tiles.
  • Wall and floor tiles.
  • Refineries.